Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights or UDHR was created to lay out the minimum standard of fundamental rights that are available to all persons anywhere in the world. The declaration is the first international agreement that sets out core human rights and is based on the principles of universality, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination.

What are the rights protected by the UDHR? 

The UNDR sets out 30 rights that are created to help people understand the world standard of fundamental rights available to them. These include the

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Freedom from Discrimination
  3. Right to Life, Liberty, Personal Security
  4. Freedom from Slavery
  5. Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment
  6. Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law
  7. Right to Equality before the Law
  8. Right to Remedy by Competent Tribunal
  9. Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Exile
  10. Right to Fair Public Hearing
  11. Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty
  12. Freedom from Interference with Privacy, Family, Home and Correspondence
  13. Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country
  14. Right to Asylum in other Countries from Persecution
  15. Right to a Nationality and the Freedom to Change It
  16. Right to Marriage and Family
  17. Right to Own Property
  18. Freedom of Belief and Religion
  19. Freedom of Opinion and Information
  20. Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association
  21. Right to Participate in Government and in Free Elections
  22. Right to Social Security
  23. Right to Desirable Work and to Join Trade Unions
  24. Right to Rest and Leisure
  25. Right to Adequate Living Standard
  26. Right to Education
  27. Right to Participate in the Cultural Life of Community
  28. Right to a Social Order that Articulates this Document
  29. Community Duties Essential to Free and Full Development
  30. Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above Rights

What is the authority of the UDHR? 

The UDHR is not legally binding on countries but has had significant influence in the creation of national and international documents to implement these fundamental rights in the countries. It has also given rise to a range of international agreements that are binding on the countries that ratify them, including the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

It is argued that the declaration has become a part of customary law due to its consistent use for over 60 years. The UDHR has been used as a catalyst to expand human rights protection for groups such as refugees, disabled persons, indigenous persons and women. It is important to note that there are no exemptions for persons with disabilities from enjoying these rights.